El Estado Mayor Conjunto de la Defensa (EMACON) es el órgano auxiliar de mando del JEMAD, al cual apoya y asesora en la definición de la estrategia militar, en el planeamiento militar, en el planeamiento y la conducción estratégica de las operaciones, en la realización de las acciones necesarias para asegurar la eficacia operativa de las Fuerzas Armadas (FAS), en la representación militar ante Organizaciones Internacionales de Seguridad y Defensa (OISD) y en el resto de sus competencias. Actuará como el principal coordinador de las actividades generales del EMAD.
Born in Barcelona on 2 January 1957, he entered the Naval Military School in August 1975 and was employed as a Navy Ensign in July 1980. He was promoted to Ship Lieutenant in July 1983, to Lieutenant Commander in May 1992, to Commander in December 1999, to Captain in July 2006, to Rear Admiral in August 2010, to Vice Admiral in June 2014 and to Admiral on 23 June 2017.
He graduated from the Naval War College in July 1995 and from the 97th Senior Course of NATO Defence College in February 2001. In 2012 he completed the NATO Senior Officers Policy course at the NATO School in Oberammergau and he graduated from NATO Defence College's General Flag Officers and Ambassadors course.
Diver and Communications Specialist, he has taken many other courses related to his career.
He was on board the Frigate "Extremadura" and the Corvette "Diana". He was Chief of Operations of the submarines "Delfín" and "Mistral" as well as Chief of Orders of the 31st Escort Squadron. He was also the second commander of the patrol boat 'Recalde' and the submarine 'Tramontana'.
He was under the command of the Minesweeper "Odiel" in 1990/91, the submarine "Tramontana” in 1997/1999, the frigate "Santa María" in 2003/04 – being deployed 5 months in the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf as part of the operation "Enduring Freedom"- and finally the Spanish Navy Submarine Units in 2007/09.
He was Chief of the COMSTANAVFORMED Staff in 2002/03 during the operation "Active Endeavour”, and of COM SP HRF (M) HQ in 2005/07, where he was in charge of the preparation and certification of the NATO Response Force (NRF) in cycles 7 and 8.
Between September 2011 and March 2013, he assumed the position of DCOS Operations at the HQ MC in Naples where he was also specifically designated DCOS OPS CTF 455 for the operation "Unified Protector” in Libya.
Between May 2013 and July 2016, he was Deputy Chief of Staff Joint Force Trainer at Allied Command Transformation in Norfolk (USA).
Since 23 June 2017 he acts as Joint Staff Commander.
Land-based assignments: been Chief of the Navy Radio Station, Technical Advisor to the Under Deputy Secretary of Defence (SUBDEF), Current Operations Officer at EMACON, Liaison Officer (Maritime Operations and Intelligence) at USCENTCOM TAMPA (USA), Chief of the Doctrine Section of the Navy Chief of Staff and fChief of the Navy Staff Operations Division.
He holds the Grand Cross of Naval Merit, the Grand Cross of St. Hermenegildo, 5 crosses of Naval Merit, the Uruguayan medal, one cross of Military Merit, 2 NATO medals (article and non-article 5) and the Silver Defence Medal of the French Republic.
He holds SLP permanent certificates in English and French (4, 4, 4, 4) and 4,3, 3, 3 of Italian. He also speaks Portuguese.
He is married to María Cristina, he has three children of 35, 30 and 25 years old. He likes history, reading, fishing and hunting (big and small game hunting).
El Estado Mayor Conjunto (EMACON) se articula en:
a) La Jefatura.
b) La Secretaría General del Estado Mayor Conjunto de la Defensa (SEGEMACON).
c) La División de Planes (DIVPLA).
d) La División de Estrategia (DIVESTRA).
e) La División de Desarrollo de la Fuerza (DIVDEF).
f) La Jefatura Conjunta de Sanidad (JECOSAN).
g) La Célula Nacional Contra Artefactos Explosivos Improvisados (CENCIED).
h) La Unidad de Verificación (UVE).
i) La Sección de Gestión de la Información y del Conocimiento (SGIC).
j) La Jefatura de Seguridad y Servicios del Cuartel General del EMAD (JESES- CGEMAD).
k) Otras unidades que se determinen.
SEGEMACON is the body responsible for directly assisting JEMACON in the management of EMACON, as well as for the technical-administrative support to EMAD Headquarters bodies. It is also responsible for providing advice and support in those matters that, being under the responsibility of EMACON, are not specific to the Divisions that compose it. It will also act as Technical Secretariat of the Joint Action Support Command.
SEGEMACON is composed of the following bodies, under the General Secretary:
COORDINATION AND RESEARCH/STUDIES DEPARTMENT
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT DEPARTMENT
NORMATIVE PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT
DRAWING AND REPROGRAPHIC DEPARTMENT
EMAD GENERAL REGISTRY
The Strategy Division (DIVESTRA in Spanish) is the body responsible for developing the Military Strategy and Armed Forces (FAS in Spanish) employment concept. It is also responsible for developing and coordinating FAS´s position before International Security and Defence Organizations (OISD in Spanish), in which JEMAD has responsibilities. The Strategy División is also responsible for planning, coordinating and controlling the activities derived from military relations of both bilateral and multilateral nature for which it is responsible; and for preparing military response options to support JEMAD in strategic operation planning and management.
DIVESTRA is composed of:
STRATEGY AND STRATEGIC PLANS SECTION
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS SECTION
FORCE DEVELOPMENT SECTION
The Planning Division (DIVPLA in Spanish) is the EMACON´s body responsible for preparing and coordinating Force planning, developing duties related to the process of acquiring those material resources included within the JEMAD responsibility, and for guiding the transformation processes of FAS operational capabilities. It will be also responsible for preparing and coordinating FAS´s position before International Security and Defence Organizations (OISD) in the logistics domain.
DIVPLA is composed of:
FORCE PLANS SECTION
RESOURCE PLAN SECTIONS
La DIVDEF es el órgano responsable de liderar el proceso transversal de Desarrollo de la Fuerza, comprendiendo los esfuerzos de preparación e interoperabilidad y coordinando la orientación de la preparación conjunta. Lidera, asimismo, el proceso de prospectiva, definiendo el marco estratégico militar. Impulsa y dirige el desarrollo y la experimentación de nuevos conceptos. Promueve y coordina el estudio y desarrollo de la doctrina conjunta y combinada. Mantiene las relaciones necesarias con los organismos homólogos de doctrina y desarrollo de la fuerza. Promueve y coordina el proceso conjunto de lecciones aprendidas y mejores prácticas.
La JECOSAN es responsable de dirigir y coordinar los aspectos relacionados con la sanidad operativa, en el ámbito de sus competencias. Para ello, imparte directrices dirigidas a orientar la preparación y empleo de las capacidades sanitarias operativas derivadas del Planeamiento Militar. Además, participa en el desarrollo y establecimiento de las normas de acción conjunta en este ámbito.
La CENCIED tiene la misión de impulsar y coordinar el desarrollo de la capacidad de lucha Contra Artefactos Explosivos Improvisados (C-IED) en las FAS y la postura de éstas ante las OISD en este ámbito, así como de apoyar, dentro del ámbito que se requiera, en el planeamiento y conducción de las operaciones militares. Constituye el enlace nacional del Centro de Excelencia Contra Artefactos Explosivos Improvisados (CoE C-IED), con el Centro Nacional de Inteligencia y con las Fuerzas y Cuerpos de Seguridad del Estado.
For the achievement of this mission, the following basic tasks should be performed:
· To cooperate, through the integration and intelligence exploitation, to neutralize or at least minimize the threat of attacks with improvised explosive devices (IED).
· To support the transformation process of the Spanish Armed Forces and the Atlantic Alliance in the field of the fight against IED.
· To support, within its scope, the research and development of the capabilities of the Spanish Armed Forces by means of:
· Promoting military education, instruction and support for national and multinational exercises
· Improving the interoperability levels in joint and combined environments.
· Supporting the development of concepts, doctrine, procedures and standards.
· Testing and validating concepts through experimentation.
· Contributing to the lessons learned process.
· To support the standardisation of C-IED material and equipment within NATO.
The Spanish Verification Unit is the independent joint operational unit in charge of conducting verification activities corresponding to the Armed Forces.
The mission of this unit is contained in the Ministerial Order 73/91, of 8 October, which creates the Spanish Verification Unit.
In the Preamble of said Ministerial Order, the members of this unit are part, depending on the specialisation required, of an Executive Unit as “a permanent differentiated joint operational unit”, in order to distinguish it from the personnel who provide services within the Joint Staff. The Unit will take part in those tasks needed for dealing with the commitments acquired by Spain in arms control, and it will verify that they are fulfilled.
Subsequently, Article 1 of the provisions included in this Ministerial Order states that…” those missions corresponding to the Armed Forces in terms of Verification, as a consequence of the International commitments acquired by our Nation, will be conducted by the Spanish Verification Unit from the Defence Staff.
UVE, according to the Defence Regulation 40/2008, implementing the Defence Staff structure, is organically included within the Defence Staff structure and it is dependent, for the purposes of procedure and clearance, on the General Chief of the Strategic Plans Division (DIVESPLA in Spanish) from the Joint Defence Staff (JEMACON in Spanish)
According to Order DEF/166/2015, the Spanish Verification Unit shall be responsible for planning, coordinating, controlling and executing the activities entrusted to the Armed Forces, in conjunction with those carried out by other bodies of the Administration, arising from the international commitments adopted by Spain in relation to disarmament, arms control and the establishment of confidence and security measures, as well as for verifying compliance by other States.
In order to comply with the foregoing, the UVE has the following tasks:
1. Monitoring of arms control treaties and agreements from which verification measures could be derived.
2. Conducting inspections, evaluations, observation flights or other verification activities in other States, thus coordinating procedures and activities with allied countries and OSCE countries.
3. Carrying out escorts for foreign teams during verification activities, in coordination with the units, centres and agencies of the armed forces along with the relevant administrative bodies.
4. Collecting information from the Armed Forces and preparing the Information Exchanges Procedures under the corresponding treaties and agreements, and proposal for dissemination.
5. Keeping updated, utilising and controlling a Data Base for supporting both verification activities and national and foreign military information exchanges.
6. Training and instructing the Unit´s personnel to conduct proper verification and arm control activities.
7. Planning and proposing staffing, material and resources needs, including the annual budget for developing its activities.
8. Taking part in monitoring those agreements and treaties that may originate verification measures.
9. Proposing assistance to conferences, seminars and meetings of national and international interest for the Unit.
10. Maintain an alert system, in coordination with the bodies involved in the verification system, allowing a rapid reaction to notifications of verification activities received in Spain.
INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING
UVE requires well-trained personnel in order to successfully conduct missions with a very short activation process and specialised training. For this purpose, the following capabilities are needed:
· Fluent communication in English and Russian (including aeronautic Russian), key tools within the Verification field.
· Creating and analysing military information exchanges.
· Knowledge on Arms Control Treaties and Agreements.
· Recognising and identifying military materials and units.
· Planning and conducting aerial photographic missions.
· Knowledge on small and light weapons and conventional ammunitions.
· Leading/integrating into multinational teams.
· Negotiation skills capacity within the multinational and operational field.
· Other technical capacities (photosetting, photography, GPS´s use, etc.).
· High degree of Operational Readiness: passports, vacuums, medical examinations, physical aptitude tests, etc.
The main training of the personnel is carried out in the Unit itself and in the NATO School in Oberammergau (Germany). The unit collaborates with the NATO School by providing teachers, being a real challenge that makes UVE proud, as it requires a perfect command of technical English and expertise in the subject to be taught, since it is necessary to give classes to students with a high level of previous knowledge.
Instruction and Training of UVE personnel is complemented with other activities such as exercises and bilateral instruction flights with allied countries, cooperation with other FAS Units for First-Aid courses, training flights in helicopters, visits to Units to prepare them for inspections, and other internal activities including language courses, material recognition courses, shooting, parades, etc.
As a result of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), and after development of such negotiation in Vienna, from March 1989, the General Directorate of Defence Policies (DIGENPOL in Spanish) had the necessity of establishing an organic structure able to meet the obligations deriving both from the CFE treaty and the Stockholm Document. For that purpose, a two-level structure is conceived: one of management level, conducted by DIGENPOL and another one executive, under the Joint Defence Staff (EMACON in Spanish) and the Army Headquarters.
In March 1990, by Order from the Ministry of Defence, a work group was created which proposed a first design of organization of a verification system, assigned tasks to DIGENPOL, Defence Staff (EMAD in Spanish), Army, Navy and Air Force Headquarters, and created a Verification Cell within each of them. From this group, the proposal of an inspection/escort unit arose, thus considered the UVE´s germ. At the same time, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, following a letter sent by the Minister of Defence communicating the organization´s status regarding Defence verification and the necessity to coordinate this matter between both Ministries, expressed its intent to create a Sub-Directorate for Disarmament Affairs.
Following approval of the creation of an inspection/escort unit, and once an initial verification system was established through the allocation of responsibilities, operational lines were defined, being in some cases characteristic features of the UVE´s modus operandi. Among them, we can highlight performance in accordance with regulated procedures, which are agreed in advance by participating bodies, and decentralization in the execution by each team, both at the inspection and escort levels.
The need for having a communication system was considered to be of great importance, conceiving the possibility of multiple uses: information exchange, data processing, notifications, etc. Also, given the short time period established for processing the different procedures, it was also considered the need for establishing a permanent alert system which would be able to respond within three hours to a notification made by another country expressing the intention to conduct an inspection in Spain within the following 36 hours.
In September 1990, for the development of verification standards, guidelines were established assigning tasks to UVE, and mentioning it as a recently-created unit. However, this fact did not occur until a year later, even though on 20th September 1990 (BOD 190), General Víctor Suanzes Pardo was appointed Chief of the Verification Unit. From that moment, all the competences related to elaboration and maintenance of information fell under the competence of the EMACON Verification Cell.
Annexed to the aforementioned guidelines, the proposal also establishes a division of Spain into inspection districts with two entry/exit points, the limits for deciding the kind of transport to be used by the escort team and the support given to flights conducted over those identified places with Army helicopters. This resulted in a first draft of a general operational standard.
As a result of this preparatory activity emerged the Organizational Structure 90/02, which today is still the most important basic document, since it is signed by the Chief of Defence Staff (JEMAD) and countersigned by the Ministry of Defence. It regulates tasks endorsed by the Ministry of Defence organisms in relation to the active and passive inspections, together with one important aspect that is the establishment of the UVE internal structure under the command of a General; in addition, the EMACON´s responsibility for maintenance of a database is also established. Shortly thereafter, in January 1991, the General Instruction 02/91, regulating internal procedures for development of information exchange in the Kingdom of Spain, was signed.
But certainly, the most significant event during 1992, given the commitment of the Eastern European countries to ratify the CFE Treaty, was the UVE´s creation by Ministerial Order 73/91 of 8 October 1991.
July 1992 saw an event that would definitely foster the development of the Unit: the decision taken by the States signing the CFE of its provisional entry into force. Despite all the preparations, this fact took by surprise the unit, since they had an insufficient number of troops to cope with the workload expected at that time; for that reason, personnel were seconded in September, being definitely assigned in December.
Entry into force
From then on, the unit found itself into an intense activity, since in December 1992 it was also in charge of those verification activities of the Vienna Document in which the unit had previous experience, taking into account that in October 1991 the first activity regarding the application of this document was conducted: evaluation of the Cavalry Brigade Castillejos No.2 in Zaragoza by a team from the URSS. Regarding CFE, it was needed, before proceeding during the following three years to the reduction to the agreed limits, to validate data on the existence of armament limited by the Treaty; said period was known as “base validation period”.
During the CFE period, known as “reduction period”, a great effort was made, since a quantity of armament higher than the one destroyed during the Second World War, was rendered useless.
The unit´s internal organization was also adapted to this new situation. The inspection team lost its permanent role regarding its composition and evolved into a more pragmatic and at the same time efficient mode of action, from a functional point of view. The rotation of inspectors in multiple tasks, according to their mission, enables full knowledge of the different consequences of executing a verification mission.
The end of the reduction period, in 1995, gave way to an intense activity phase of application of the CFE Treaty. Within four months, as many inspections as those that may be conducted during an annual cycle, were realised. The protagonists of the “residual level validation period”, as this phase was called, will remember it as a permanent state of availability to pack and unpack personal luggage.
Diversification of activities
Following the new integration of the Verification Cell into UVE, returning to EMACON from 1992, the unit commitment to the function of advising the command regarding arm control increased.
The situation reached after the signing of the Dayton Agreement in the Balkans, giving rise to a verification regime partially inspired by CFE and the Vienna Document, offered UVE the possibility of taking part as an assistant of the teams composed by the parties involved in a conflict.
The entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention, signed in Paris in January 1993 and ratified by Spain in August 1994, led to the creation of the National Authority for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (ANPAQ in Spanish), by Royal Decree of 12 May 1997, being a collegiate body chaired by the Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs, a General Secretariat included into the Minister of Industry and Energy, and a Working Group. In this way, a new body is created, competent in verification issues, as well as an inspection regime, created by experts from the international Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), and with the participation of UVE as a support body, due to its experience in verification, since the unit had already performed an exercise related with this activity at the Naval Base of Algameca (Cartagena).
A fact of great impact on the UVE´s financial side was that, from 1998, military aircraft was replaced by commercial airlines for the movement of inspection teams. This was a practice already applied by other CFE members for some time. This fact did not mean in any way the end of the valuable contribution to the verification activities given by the Spanish Air Force. Soon afterwards, the air observation system for the Treaty on Open Skies, known as “sensor´s pod” was delivered to the allied group participating in the consortium formed in 1994 through a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). Spain made an important contribution to the system equipment by providing four aerial cameras, with a cost of 22 million pesetas (132,500€).
After executing compatibility tests with the aircraft “Hércules”, which had previously undergone a modernisation process in avionics and self-protection systems, the first operational activities were carried out with this aircraft, preceded by flights for data collection in order to determine the minimum height required for the sensors.
On 1st January 2002, the Treaty on Open Skies came into force, and since then, both active and passive observation flights are conducted.
Organic and functional restructuring
In January 1998 and by application of JEMAD Organizational Instruction 1/98 on “organization of EMAD Headquarters”, UVE became dependent on the Strategic Plans Division (DIVESPLA). In June 1999, UVE moved from its section into the Defence Staff to its current location at the Defence Group of Schools in Madrid.
UVE is in charge of conducting verification and assessment activities, maintaining functional relation with the following bodies:
· General Directorate of Defence Policies (DIGENPOL in Spanish) from the Ministry of Defence.
· General Directorate of Foreign Policy and Multilateral, Global and Security Affairs, from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
· Strategic Plans Division (DIVESPLA) from the Joint Staff.
· Verification Cells from the Spanish Army, Navy and Air Force.
Updated on 31st December 2019
Summary of activities executed by UVE
· Inspections: 156
· Multinational Inspections: 342
· Passive Inspections: 119
Vienna Document Activities
· Unit evaluations led by Spain: 40
· Specific Area Inspections led by Spain: 46
· Inspections or Evaluations (multinational teams): 104
· Escorts to Unit Evaluations (Spanish Units): 21
· Escorts to Specific Area Inspections (in Spain): 34
· Events in Spain (Visit to Air Base and Military Facilities): 12
· Participation in events -in other Participating States-: 208
· Observations of manoeuvres -in other participating States-: 7
Open Skies Activities
· Observation Flights: 50
· Escort to Observation Flights in Spain: 26
Dayton Agreement Activities
· 46 Missions
Chemical Weapons Convention Activities
· 81 Escorts to OPCW Inspections
La SGIC tiene la misión de identificar y mantener actualizados los principales procesos funcionales y operativos del EMAD, planeando y desarrollando la estructura más adecuada de Gestión de la Información y del Conocimiento en el ámbito del EMAD y su implantación. Asimismo, propone medidas de coordinación de los procesos troncales transversales definidos por el JEMAD para enlazar con los procesos específicos.
La JESES-CGEMAD es responsable del mantenimiento de las instalaciones, apoyando en materia de vida y funcionamiento al CGEMAD y a aquellas unidades dependientes del JEMAD que se determinen y a sus componentes. Organiza y dirige la seguridad que precise el personal destinado en el CGEMAD y de sus dependencias. Además, lleva a cabo las gestiones en materia medioambiental, eficiencia energética y prevención de riesgos laborales en el CGEMAD.